Chlorogenic acid, a major bioactive compound found in coffee may have a profound effect in stimulated vascular function in moving blood, some studies suggested.
Vascular function is the action of arteries and veins, involving blood circulation in provided nutrients and fluids to the body cells and tissue, through adjusting the blood flow.
Abnormal vascular function found in image of PR interval in electrocardiography may associate to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases(3).
The normal of PR interval or period measured in milliseconds, is between 120 and 200ms in duration.
However, “PR-interval length, even in the conventionally normal range, is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness in healthy subjects free of atherosclerotic disease” said, Dr. Chan YH, the lead scientist.
According to medical literature, abnormal vascular function may increase risk of vascular disease, affecting the circulatory system in induction of peripheral artery, carotid artery and venus disease and blood clot.
The causes of abnormal vascular function are unknown. But researchers agreed that hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are risk factors to the onset of abnormal vascular function.
Although, there are numbers of mechanism contributed to risk of abnormal vascular function, aging is also considered as an independent risk factor, which can lead to progressive worsening of vascular function and structure.
Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.
According to the study lead by the University of Reading, chlorogenic acids isolated from coffee roasted bean, acutely improved vascular function, partly due to mediation of 5-CQA, a member in the group in regulated the normal function of arteries and veins.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the ester of caffeic acid and (−)-quinic acid with function in modulated lignin biosynthesis in binding to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthened the plant cell walls.
An acute randomized, controlled, cross-over human intervention trials is conducted by researchers at the University of Reading to examine the impact of coffee intake, matched for caffeine but differing in CQA content (89, and 310 mg) on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in 15 healthy male subjects, in compared a second intervention trial conducted with 24 healthy male subjects.
Observation of he impacts of pure 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the main CGA in coffee(5-CQA; 450 mg and 900 mg) on FMD, found that
*. Low and high CGA(89 mg and 310 mg CGA) intake, show a significant effect on vascular function 1 hour after injecting coffee.
*. Coffee intake is closely associated to the paralleled to the appearance of CGA metabolites in regulated the normal function of arteries and veins at 5 hours
*. 5-CQA (450 mg) expressed an improvement by FMD assay after 1 hour of administration.
The information suggested that coffee has a strong effect in activated vascular function through expression of CGA and its metabolites in plasma and numbers of other phytochemicals including 3-, 4- and 5-feruloylquinic acid and ferulic-4′-O-sulfate at 1 h and isoferulic-3′-O-glucuronide and ferulic-4′-O-sulfate.
Interestingly, in the further illustration of coffee and its CGA effect on vascular abnormality, researchers at the joint study lead by the Bioactive Substance Research Group, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, launched an investigation of participant including 38 men and 37 women with a mean ± SD age of 38.5 and body mass index of 24.1 and randomly assigned to 3 groups* A control group that did not consume coffee or a placebo
*Group consumed 400 mL coffee/d for 8 wk containing a medium (MCCGA; 420 mg) or
*Group consumed 400 mL coffee/d for 8 wk containing a medium high CGA content,
At the end of the experiment, researchers concluded
*. Coffee consumption over the period indicated and after 1 hours, show a significant presence of caffeic and ferulic acid concentrations in the coffee-drinking groups, with different values in 2 coffee injection group.
* At the same time, the levels of antioxidant expression increased substantially in 2 coffee intake group, but undetectable in control group or placebo.
* All amount of antioxidants and phytochemicals creased to exist after 8 weeks.
These results indicated the efficacy of tested acid not only has a strong implication in promoted vascular function in blood circulation but also exerted a similar function of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in decreased inflammation and prevented blood clots through its antioxidant properties.
The evidences in the study demonstrated a acute effect of coffee in promoting of vascular function in improved nutrients and fluids transportation by arteries and vessels.
Taking together, there is no doubt that coffee consumption have an enormous effect in improved vascular function in reduced risk of vascular diseases and diseases’ complications.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Mediation of coffee-induced improvements in human vascular function by chlorogenic acids and its metabolites: Two randomized, controlled, crossover intervention trials by Mills CE1, Flury A2, Marmet C3, Poquet L3, Rimoldi SF2, Sartori C4, Rexhaj E2, Brenner R2, Allemann Y2, Zimmermann D3, Gibson GR1, Mottram DS1, Oruna-Concha MJ1, Actis-Goretta L3, Spencer JP5.(PubMed)
(2) Coffee Consumption Increases the Antioxidant Capacity of Plasma and Has No Effect on the Lipid Profile or Vascular Function in Healthy Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial by Agudelo-Ochoa GM1, Pulgarín-Zapata IC2, Velásquez-Rodriguez CM3, Duque-Ramírez M4, Naranjo-Cano M5, Quintero-Ortiz MM5, Lara-Guzmán OJ6, Muñoz-Durango K2.(PubMed)
(3) Abnormal vascular function in PR-interval prolongation by Chan YH1, Siu CW, Yiu KH, Li SW, Lau KK, Lam TH, Lau CP, Tse HF(PubMed)